Expansive soil is a common problem of the overlying rock and soil structure, and there is a risk of danger and damage due to ground movement caused by moisture. Calcium-based stabilizers are easily used to improve and strengthen problematic swelling roadbeds, increasing strength and volume change behavior. For ground improvement, the use of lime and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to treat expansive soil has become a common practice; however, CSA cement can be an effective substitute because CSA cement reduces the impact on the environment.
CSA cement is a cement powder that can increase strength, shorten setting time, increase durability and reduce shrinkage of standard concrete mix designs. CSA cement is the perfect complement to hybrid designs that need to reach high strength quickly. CSA cement can be used with retarder additives to provide longer processability while still achieving high early strength, making it an ideal product for time-sensitive projects.
So far, the literature on the understanding of CSA cement in expansive soils is limited, but it mainly focuses on the application of concrete infrastructure. Due to the three key stages of cation exchange between clay flakes, flocculation and agglomeration, and cementation and hydration, the stability of CSA cement directly affects the mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics. Adding CSA cement to ground stabilization helps to switch to sustainable methods to reduce the impact of traditional stabilization techniques. CSA cement was used to study sustainable ground treatment methods. CSA cement shows a significant and rapid increase in strength of expansive soil. CSA cement stabilization follows cation exchange, flocculation and agglomeration. Subsequently, the cement hydrates to form a space filled with ettringite needles.